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Far from being the passive containers for semiconductor devices of the past, the packages in today's high performance computers pose numerous challenges in interconnecting, powering, cooling and protecting devices. While semiconductor circuit performance measured in picoseconds continues to improve, computer performance is expected to be in nanoseconds for the rest of this century -a factor of 1000 difference between on-chip and off-chip performance which is attributable to losses associated with the package. Thus the package, which interconnects all the chips to form a particular function such as a central processor, is likely to set the limits on how far computers can evolve. Multichip packaging, which can relax these limits and also improve the reliability and cost at the systems level, is expected to be the basis of all advanced computers in the future. In addition, since this technology allows chips to be spaced more closely, in less space and with less weight, it has the added advantage of being useful in portable consumer electronics as well as in medical, aerospace, automotive and telecommunications products. The multichip technologies with which these applications can be addressed are many. They range from ceramics to polymer-metal thin films to printed wiring boards for interconnections; flip chip, TAB or wire bond for chip-to-substrate connections; and air or water cooling for the removal of heat.
The platform-centric SoC method is aimed at the design of today's SoC systems with emphasis on real-time, embedded systems. The approach provides a guideline and an SoC design environment that promotes an integration of state-of-the-art tools and techniques necessary for the development of the systems. It renders a new and better perspective towards co-design approaches, while also raising a level of design abstraction. Because the configurable platform objects are designed off-cycle, they contribute to a general improvement in development time. By incorporating their usage, the overall method strikes a balance between total design flexibility and minimal time-to-market.
In Chapter 1, challenges in the co-design of SoCs are introduced. The chapter briefly describes the technical challenges facing system developers and introduces a proposed solution to the problem. The remainder of this book presents a more thorough examination on the problem and the proposed approach.
Chapter 2 describes the proposed platform-centric SoC design method in detail. It illustrates the design flow and discusses each main step in the design process. Definition of a platform as originally defined by Sabbagh 96], as well as the platform-based and platform-centric design approaches, are presented. The chapter concludes by comparing the proposed approach with previous related work.
Chapter 3 lays out the technological background for the proposed SoC design method. Whereas the platform technology is discussed in Chapter 2, this chapter gives an overview of the other two fundamental technologies: the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and the Extensible Markup Language (XML). The chapter begins with an introduction to UML as a modeling tool very well perceived within the software engineering community. It is followed by a discussion on an attempt by the Object Management Group (OMG) to empower UML for the development of real-time embedded software - an effort which will eventually culminate in a design framework known as the UML Profile for Schedulability, Performance, and Time Specification 29]. Thereafter, an overview of XML and a few other related internet technologies ensue.
Chapter 4 outlines the structure of the library of platform objects (LPO), as well as furnishes a comprehensive guideline and requirements specification that a platform object must possess in order to be scalable and compatible with the proposed approach. Essential elements for each platform object, e.g. architecture blueprint, XML-based self-described modules, platform managing tool, etc., are also discussed in detail.
Chapter 5 provides a detailed treatment of UML extensions for the development of real-time embedded systems. The chapter starts with a layout of the Co-design Modeling Framework (CMF) hierarchy that encompasses five other sub-profiles - the generic utility profile (PCUprofile), the Exception Modeling profile (EMprofile), the Interrupt Modeling profile (IMprofile), the Synthesizable Hardware Description Language profile (SHDLprofile), and the Architecture Blueprint profile (ABprofile). Each of these profiles furnishes a design framework that is specifically tailored for the proposed approach, and may be able to meet with the challenges posed by the design and test of real-time embedded SoC-based systems. The chapter, then, proceeds to discuss the domain concept for each sub-profile, followed by the description of the corresponding stereotypes.
Chapter 6 applies the platform-centric SoC design method, using the CMF profile in UML, to the development of a simplified digital camera system so as to demonstrate the use and the robustness of the proposed approach. Specifically, the NiOS development board is used to mimic the digital camera system where raw image data are read from a charge-coupled device (CCD), and then JPEG encoded and stored into memory. The chapter begins with an overview of the Altera's NiOS system, followed by the actual system development process that explicitly demonstrates the use of the proposed approach. A quantitative evaluation is then presented that compares the development cost of the proposed platform-centric SoC design method against some alternative approaches using cost estimation models and tools.
Chapter 7 concludes the book with a summary and a discussion of future directions for this effort on platform-based design.
Conceptual Design of Multichip Modules and Systems treats activities which take place at the conceptual and specification level of the design of complex multichip systems. These activities include the formalization of design knowledge (information modeling), tradeoff analysis, partitioning, and decision process capture. All of these functions occur prior to the traditional CAD activities of synthesis and physical design.
The cultural and performative turns in social theory have enlivened sociology. For the first time these new developments are fully integrated into new approaches to the sociology of the arts in this important new book. Building on the established research into art worlds, what is interesting for the new sociology of the arts, understood in the broad sense to include popular culture as well the classical focus on music, painting, and literature, is the relationship between art works and meaning, myth, and performance. Also reflected in these rich essays, which range from Beethoven to John Lennon to Chinese avant garde artists, is the lived experience of the artist and its impact on the process of creation and innovation.
Chip discovers mirror writing in Mirror Island and helps to find buried treasure on a magic key adventure. Biff, Chip and Kipper Stories is one of the most popular character series of all time. The Level 6 stories are full of humour, drama, rich language and storylines to engage and motivate children. The popular characters and a mixture of familiar settings and exciting adventures are brought to life by Roderick Hunt and Alex Brychta. Each book contains inside cover notes to help adults read and explore the content with the child. Teaching notes on Oxford Owl support independent reading, guided reading, writing, and speaking, listening and drama activities.
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